quarta-feira, 16 de novembro de 2011

The Flight of the Santos=Dumont 14 Bis Airplane

The 14 Bis, the first homologated airplane flight in history, emerged from a series of inventions with the name "Number 14", learn how this series of events brought the most famous airplane of Santos=Dumont.

Leia este artigo em Português 

On June 12, 1905 Santos=Dumont flied his dirigible of number 14 in Saint-Cloud, it was an agile and fast model. With an internal volume of 200 cubic meters, the number 14 was extremely thin, moved by a Clement motor of 3.5 HP.

After the first tests the dirigible proved to be extremely difficult to maneuver and very unstable. Santos=Dumont has redesigned the involucre, this time more thick, with 186 cubic meters. He flew with this latest version of number 14 on August 21, 1905 on Trouville, in the coast.

It was also on the French coast that Dumont noticed in a boats race that the Antoinette engines were more powerful and lighter, which would make the flight of airplanes possible.

Also in Trouville, he saw the flight of kites in the shape of Hargraves cells and got inspired. His team worked in secret. With a wingspan of 12 meters and measuring 10 meters long, the bamboo frame was covered with Japanese silk, the rudder was projected in front of the aircraft (canard configuration).

Santos=Dumont decided not to take unnecessary risks, he knew he would had to master the commands before venturing into the air, he decided to engage the aircraft dirigible of number 14 (that’s why it’s called 14 “bis” – Latin word bis means twice, repetition) using a 24 HP Antoinette engine, the fusion of airplane and airship proved to be extremely unstable, in addition its drag created was very great. See animation below.

Click on the image above to see how the airplane 14 a blimp in conjunction with number 14 was unstable.

Once he got rid of the dirigible, the biplane finally freed from its weak partner, received the name of the press “Oiseau de Proie” (Bird of Prey).
Here, a donkey called Kuigno, entered to the aviation history helping Dumont with his experiments

Still aiming to master the controls and find the best conditions for handling S=D ties cables to the 14 bis, that were pulled to the higher side with the help of a charming donkey and then ran free, like a great zip line.

He also made some experiments in the hangar and noticed that his engine would not able to take flight, thus decided to replace it by a 50 HP Antoinette.

It was in the field of Bagatelle, on September 7 that S=D managed to get the wheels off the ground for a little while, so that was how Dumont decided to put his trust on the 14 bis to win the Archdeacon Prize.

He tried the flight again on September 13, 1906 but the engine was not working with all pistons. His technician, Chapin 14 fix it and he flew the incredible distance of 13 meters.

On October 23, 1906, Santos Dumont presented himself again at Bagatelle with the Oiseau de Proie of Oiseau II, with some small modifications on the original model, the airplane had been varnished to reduce the porosity of the tissue and increase the lift.

At this day the 14 Bis flew 60 meters at 3 meters high. But it was only on November 12, 1906 at 16:45 precisely that the 14 Bis flew 220m at 6 meters high and won the prize offered by the Aeroclub of France - IT WAS THE FIRST DOCUMENTED FLIGHT IN THE HISTORY OF AVIATION.

segunda-feira, 31 de outubro de 2011

The Dirigible Santos=Dumont Number 9 - The most elegant flying machine ever

leia esta matéria em Português

Undoubtedly the Dirigible Santos=Dumont Number 9, also called "La Balladeuse" (the carriage) was the most elegant invention for solo flight.

Santos=Dumont conducted his experiments with style. Trends such as dandy, neo Victorian, steam punk, etc., transformed him in sort of an artist-scientist.

Next, I bring some French and American publications telling about his achievements when he was flying his dirigible Number 9 over the streets of Paris.

- New York Herald June 24, 1903

(You will see that in this text the location of the Santos=Dumont shed is mistakenly located in St. James, when in fact, the true location was in St. Cloud. I put the article as it was written, and I suggest that you may ignore the errors).

"M. Santos-Dumont in his number 9 going for breakfast on the Champs-Elysees.
M. Santos-Dumont Goes in His Number 9 to breakfgast in the Champs-Elysees.
Makes early morning trip from the balloon shed at Neuilly to his residence.


Has constructed landing-stage on his balcony for use on future occasions

M. Santos-Dumont yesterday made an earlier appearing trip in the Santos-Dumont No.9 from his balloon shell at St. James to his residence, No 114 Avenue Chaps-Elysees, where he took breakfast with some friends and then returned to the “starting-point”.

This remarkable ballooning feat formed the subject of a most interesting interview between the aeronaut and a correspondent of the “Français, who found M. Santos Dumont later in the day reading quietly at his balcony at the corner of the rue “Washington” and the avenue des Chaps Elysees. His looking as unconcerned as though he had just returned from a walk.

He stated that he had been desirous for some days of taking a trip over the city but he did not care to take the risk in the small steerable balloon, as it would have been dangerous to travel above the houses with so small an amount of ballast on board. In his No. 9 however, he can carry a greater quantity of ballast, so he decided to make the trip in that balloon.

The weather on Monday had much improved and there was every appearance of the might being a fine one, so M. Santos-Dumont gave orders to his workman to hold themselves in readiness for yesterday morning of about seven or eight o’clock.

The night of Monday turned really beautiful and as chance pulled it, M. Santos-Dumont could not sleep. No he decided to get up much earlier than he had intended. It was three o’clock when he rose, and he immediately put of for the balloon shed, which he reached at four o’clock exactly.

The wind was blowing in the contrary direction to that which he desired to travel and it was no light that he thought, it would not impede the program of the No. 9 to a very great extent.

His workman were all sound asleep when he arrived at the shed, as they were not expecting him until three hours later at the  --- M. Santos-Dumont awoke them, however and they set to work at once on the preparation, which were completed about six o’clock.

All ready.

The automobiles in which the workmen were to follow the balloon were then got out, and all was ready for the start.

M. Santos-Dumont mounted the framework, and the No. 9 sailed into the air, the wind was still very light, and even showed signs of slackening.

There was a slight mist in the air, which was considered a good augury of continuance of fine weather.

The balloon was at first maneuvered in all directions to test the steering apparatus and then a turn was taken towards the Avenue du Bois du Boulogne. M. Santos-Dumont says he had never seen that avenue in such a deserted condition. Not a person was in sight and not another vehicle beyond the two automobiles containing the workman.

The temptation to continue the trip was very great, and M. Santos- Dumont decided to carry it out. He arrived without any difficult at the Arc de Triomphe, his guide-rope trailing along the road, as there was no danger of impeding the traffic under the prevailing conditions.

Round the Arc.

He steered his balloon right round the great monumental arch in order still further to test his steering gear, and the begun his journey along the avenue du Champs Elysees, There almost the same solitude prevailed as in the avenue du Bois although it was then nearly seven o’clock.

Click on the image above to see how Santos=Dumont used the steering apparatus to turn the Dirigible No 9 to the left or to the right

As he approached his residence the streets began to present a more lively appearance. Workmen were going to start their day’s labor, newspaper porters were going to from house to house, and the city watermen had sprinkling the roads.

On arriving the opposite door of his house he recognized some friends, whom he hailed. Then the balloon began to descend and finally aligned exactly before the entrance. The workmen who had followed assisting with the guide-rope.

His Landing Stage.

M. Santos-Dumont explained that later on he would have no need or the services of his workers to assist him in landing at his residence, as he had landing-stage constructed in connection with his balcony and when he arrived home in his balloon it would only be necessary to call up servants. He did not do that yesterday morning as he had not given them notice of his intention.

This landing stage is an excellent arrangement made according to M. Santos-Dumont from the plans given in a book describing the future of aeronautics written by an English author. In this volume a complete system of ballooning is described, which emprises full details of the proper way to land at houses when one is able to steer a balloon. 

Once in his house, M. Santos-Dumont took a light repast with the friends he had hailed in the street, after which he left on his way back to the balloon shed.

Click on the image above to see how Santos=Dumont steer his dirigible Number 9 up and down

At the beginning of the return journey, the wind having meanwhile increased in force, the balloon was directed along the avenue by means of the guide-rope. M. Santos-Dumont himself did not wish to take advantage of this precaution, but his assistants pointed out the danger, and he gave way to their advice.

Once in the Bois, however, the guide-rope was let go, and M. Santos-Dumont resumed his journey, relying on the steering apparatus, and in good time and after a most successful experiment, he arrived at his balloon-shed at St. James.

M. Santos-Dumont is so well satisfied with his experience that he intends shortly to make further trials of the same kind.

Dirigible Number 9 in celebration of July 14, 1903 Long Champ

sexta-feira, 28 de outubro de 2011

The Flirty Santos=Dumont, Aida de Acosta and Adeline Assis Brazil

Leia este artigo em Português

As much as I search, I always end up stumbling upon the limited data on Santos-Dumont life, particularly with regard to some female figures that passed through the life of the aviator. The first of them is Aida de Acosta. Aida de Acosta was a young American daughter of Ricardo Acosta, a Cuban businessman of the steamships construction business and Micaela Hernandez de Alba y de Alba of an aristocratic Spanish family from Toledo from the House of Alba. She went on vacations of University to Paris with a group of friends.
Steampunk look Santos=Dumont "Charmed"
Fact is, that she became the muse of the hangar. Every time the staff arrive to the hangar, as well as those who gathered there to see the flights always referred to her as: "La belle de Neuilly est arrivée". Among the huge number of people who begged to fly Santos=Dumont dirigible, Aida de Acosta was the chosen one.
What led Santos=Dumont to opt for her was her detachment and fierce desire for adventure. It was easy to identify in Aida the spirit of adventure together with the seriousness necessary to carry out such a task.
Santos set an appointment with her to the next day to teach the basic instructions of flight, Aida anticipated his arrival in Neuilly in half an hour for their first lessons. After the theoretical instruction, they left for practical instructions.
An important observation is that the delicate basket of Balladeuse does not have enough space for two people, therefore S=D flew some times from the outside, however, sometimes he had to go inside the basket (together with her) to have the agility handle de aircraft. On the morning of July 29, 1903 Aida came early to the hangar, flew alone to the polo field of Longchamps, after which, returned to the hangar. Santos=Dumont accompanied every move from the ground from his bicycle. Actually, she was the first woman to fly an aircraft powered by any form of engine. Santos had a brief involvement with her but was abruptly stopped. Mr. Ricardo, the father of Aida, very upset with the relationship said: "How could you Mr. Dumont? How could you have the courage to expose my daughter to such a risk? How could you expose my daughter to the nasty comments of the press? You may know that she had barely got out of puberty. I do not approve your relationship with my daughter. Mr. Dumont, I’d say that there are only two reasons for an honored woman to appear in the pages of newspapers; one is to announce her wedding, the other is to announce her obituary".
Another beautiful woman who appeared in the life of Santos=Dumont was Adeline Assis Brasil. There are some photos among Dumont belongings of the beautiful Adeline.
Inside the well known “Castelo das Pedras” (Stones castle), owned by Lydia Assis Brasil there is a picturesque picture in which Assis Brazil plays to hit an apple on the head of Santos=Dumont just like William Tell.
One thing that few people know is that among Santos=Dumont deeds, he had presented Brazilian people with great gift – The Iguazu falls. The history of the Iguaçu National Park begins in 1916 when Alberto Santos=Dumont, the father of aviation in visiting the family Assis Brasil, got so impressed with the beauty of the falls that used his prestige to interceded with the President of the State of Paraná , Affonso Alves de Camargo, to expropriate it and made it public property. The area belonged to an Uruguayan named Jesus Val On July 28, the Decree No. 63, passed and “Foz do Iguazu” area has been declared a public utility with 1008 hectares.

quinta-feira, 25 de agosto de 2011

The Cap Arcona Tragedy

Leia este artigo em Português

After writing “L’Homme Mecanique” (end of 1928) Santos=Dumont was very excited at the prospect of arriving in Brazil with some new inventions (The “Martian” and the “Icarus” see http://santosdumontlife.blogspot.com/2011/06/lhomme-mecanique.html) and a new book (“L’Homme Mecanique” in the same article), he knew that Brazilian people would never abandon him, and were quite optimistic about the travel outcome, but things were about to change.

Santos=Dumont, Yolanda Penteado, Antonio Prado Junior, José Augusto, Eduardo Ramos, Cesar Vergueiro e os irmãos Marques Lisboa.

Santos decided to come to Brazil on board of a recently christened German luxury ocean liner, named after Cape Arkona, on the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

The Cap Arcona was launched on May 14th 1927, she left on October 29th 1927 the port of Hamburg on her maiden trip to Argentina, transported passengers between Germany and South America up until 1940 when it was taken over by the German Navy. She was considered one of the most beautiful ships of the time, was the largest German ship on the South American run, and carried upper-class travelers and steerage-class emigrants.

The Cap Arcona exuded luxury in their various environments, the outstanding swimming pool, the exuberant ball room, a magnificent tennis course, among others.

The dining room had as principal feature the ten pairs of large windows, arranged five per side, which allowed natural light into the room and gave it a less confined feel was achieved in the enclosed dining rooms aboard North Atlantic liners. The dining room measured 114.6' x 59' x 18'. It was finished in candlewood and jacaranda, with green silk material stretched over it as wall covering. There were three large Gobelin tapestries, and a patterned carpet rather than the more commonly used linoleum floor covering.

The chambers in the interiors managed to convey the same feeling of procession that the Normandy’s famed promenade deck suite did. Dividing walls between the public rooms where reduced to a bare minimum, with only enough retained to give definition to each space. The result was both aesthetically pleasing and practical; in pre-air-conditioned times this configuration allowed for maximum airflow while in the Equatorial zone. The furniture, although of high quality, was broadly spaced.

Cap Arcona had eight suites deluxe on D Deck. These suites consisted of sitting room, bedroom, bathroom, water closet, and trunk room. The suites were finished in cherry wood, walnut, birch, mahogany, East Indian satinwood, cedar and jacaranda. With their three large windows, and lack of clutter, they appear considerably more spacious and airy than their North Atlantic counterparts.

Santos=Dumont had been invited by Antonio Prado Junior, mayor of the city of Rio de Janeiro, to attend a ceremony in which he would inaugurate an avenue named "Avenida Santos Dumont". Santos was accompanied by his nephew, Jorge and they were carrying a large amount of luggage, including the “Martian” and the “Icarus”, (he probably assembly the “Icarus” on the main deck to perform it in front of the public).

The news of the arrival of Santos Dumont in Brazil ever caused alarm, authorities were waiting for him, and them then came the day when the nice and comfortable trip back to Brazil exposed Santos=Dumont to the most shocking moment of his life.

It is a well-known fact that Santos=Dumont had some nervous problems, on January 1910 Santos=Dumont announced that he was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and was no more able to fly, and during the middle 20’s he interned himself in some private clinics in Switzerland to rest from stress, friends and family always tried to save him from being teased.

On December 3rd 1928 some Brazilian intellectuals decided to pay him homage by dropping flowers and small parachutes carrying a letter with a welcome message to S=D. Those parachutes would be launched by a Dorner Wal seaplane named “Santos Dumont” of the Condor Syndicate at “Bahia da Ganabara”, moments before CapArcona reach her final destination in Rio de Janeiro.

Two planes where performing the acrobatics, the “Guanabara” (P-BAIA) and the “Santos Dumont” (P-BACA). This last one, piloted by German pilot Wilhelm August Paschen, the “gaucho” co-pilot Enet Rodolpho, German onboard mechanic Walter Hasseldorf, dispatcher William Auth, an employee of Condor named Gustavo Butzke, professor Fernando Laboriaux Filho , Dr. Paul Grace Maya, Brazilian Air Force Major Eduardo Valle (Austrian), journalist Abel Araujo (Jornal do Brazil) and wife, Amoroso Costa, Amaury de Medeiros, Tobias Moscoso and the engineer Frederico de Oliveira Coutinho.

From the deck of the ship Santos was watching the airplanes doing acrobatics, he knew that in moments of euphoria people tended to make mistakes. Santos noted that the Dornier Wal called “Santos Dumont” had exaggerated the curve and then it disappears from the field of vision.

Yolanda Penteado, present at the Deck of Cap Arcona reported what she saw:
“Before the ship dock, the so called “health boat” came with Antonio Prado, very sad. He came aboard and told the tragedy. All people abord died in the accident. Santos Dumont was taken by a dreadful nervousness.
That evening we went to six funerals, one after the other. It caused a terrible pain to him who had, long ago, shattered nerves”.

Historians use to say that this episode was the “trigger” to a big depressive period that ended with the tragic suicide of the “Father of Flight” in July 23rd 1932.

Even the ship itself had a tragic end; contrary to general belief the world’s greatest ship disaster did not occur in the Atlantic Ocean and the ship was not the RMS Titanic. The greatest ship disaster occurred on 3 May 1945 in Lübeck Bay in the Baltic Sea and the ship was the Cap Arcona.

segunda-feira, 27 de junho de 2011

Santos=Dumont erases part of his history in Benérvile

leia este artigo em português

The life of Santos-Dumont could have been better documented, wasn’t for the episode in Benérville, near the French Resort of Deuaville, in which he burns all his documents, photos and personal objects.

It is a known fact that after the experiences with his “Demoiselle” in January 1910, Santos=Dumont was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and as a flame that goes out with the air stream, Santos just disappeared.

He had built a modest house as a refuge in Benérville, nicknamed La Boîte for its square shape.

It is also known that he was visited by some close friends, such as SEM, the now very saddened mechanical Chapin and Roland Garros, who had gone there for the arrangements regarded to the purchase of a Demoiselle number 20 (possibly they played tennis on his magnificent court).

In this 1913 document we see Santos reffering to the construction of "La Boîte"

Due to his now complicated health condition, S=D devoted his life to sports and let his mind busy with scientific pleasures, built an observatory on the roof of his house with a powerful Zeiss telescope to watch the stars.

Santos=Dumont Observatory – Santos=Dumont receive his friends Ferdinand Charron and Emmanuel Aime among others. At back the famous Zeiss telescope.

Looking at these pictures, we can realise that he received visitors not so famous, so it was not possible to know exactly who these people are.

He paid a high price for living a reclusive lifestyle, as soon as the first world war was declared in Europe in August 1914, Santos=Dumont was visited by the Gendarmes in two cars. An Austrian neighbor called Goujon denounced him. He believed that S=D was watching the movement on the coast of the English Channel with his powerful telescope and communicating through nautical flags erected on a ship mast installed next to the house.

By that time, Santos would take advantage of the laurels of his former aviator life, spent in design and style, beside the eccentricities of having nautical pieces installed in the village, he also had a beautiful Alda, 4 cylinder, 15HP, designed and built by his friend Charron.

By scouring the house, the police confiscated several belongings and documents and Santos=Dumont kept under house arrest. Antonio Prado Jr, was alerted and intervened with the Embassy of Brazil to resolve impasse.

Santos=Dumont decided to leave his residence, but not before burning all documents, plans, books and personal objects, without the chance of making duplicates, leading to a great loss of historical documents.

After the withdrawal of the S=D, the Gendarmes returned and confiscated several other objects left by him, including the beautiful car Alda. Exactly 62 years later, in September 1976 Benedic Hubert was at the site where the house was built. He found the place deserted, with only part of the floor among the debris " a magnificent view, both sides, which must have seduced Santos=Dumont" as written in this letter addressed to the family of Santos=Dumont.

sexta-feira, 10 de junho de 2011

L 'H O M M E - M E C A N I Q U E - by Santos=Dumont - in English

I dedicate this book to posterity

And, forced by circumstances I decided to write this book.
On the one hand I do not like writing, and on the other, I think the facts should be enough by itself, without further comments.
This time, after so many years, the demands and questions from friends and correspondents, especially on my last invention that forced me to take a pen and write again.
I owed them an explanation. So here they are:

.. ..

My machine is intended to transform the rotary motion of our engines in alternative, and I called it "Martian" in homage to the inhabitants of the planet Mars, which according to Wells, no longer make use of the wheel, but only automatic legs in all its machines, among which includes the huge chariots devastating London, quoted in "The War of the Worlds" - "Ah! “ They say, “these novelists, Jules Verne, Wells, such visionaries they are!”. “Did you read" I would answer, if he wanted to discuss "the latest work about our secrets on aircraft navigation or sidereal navigation?" But I will not argue.
Let's get back to the "Martian".

Luiz Pagano Historian, speitialist on Santos=Dumont, wearing 'THE MARTIAN'

These are the circumstances in which I conceive it.

For over twenty years I am passionate about skiing, since than, I was obsessed with the obligation to waste hours climbing the mountain height, before enjoying the long descent - deep pleasure , but that would be uncomplicated if the legs were not extremely exhausted by the preceding strenuous climb.
For a long time the problem seemed impossible to be solved.
.. ..
One day however, during the winter of 1925-1926, almost reaching to the top of Mont Joli, which dominates Magève, I was exhausted, like a locomotive without steam. Infinitely tired, I stopped with one ski ahead and the other just behind, no longer having the strength to pull them! This invariably happened after a climb. Immobile in thet position, curseing the poor man's inventiveness, which had not yet adapted a motor to the needs of skier and mountaineer.
It was at this very moment, that looking at the tip of my ski placing far ahead, I thought: "But here's a real pivoting point, because the seal skin prevents my ski to retreat.
If from that point, by a thread, I pull the heel of my other foot, it will reach and overcome my other ankle and only will stop when reach the same hight of this point.

This ski will then be placed at the same position occupied by the other in the last instant, and a second wire will allow me to start, with the other ski, the same maneuver. "For, as the first researchers in the direction of the balloons use to say, " Give us a point of support (pivot) - here is the answer to the whole issue. "
The problem was now resolved. It was necessary to put it into practice, or bring it to reality with one engine and automatically move back and forth, within a range of more than one meter.
What the existing mechanical would offer at that point? A conne crankshaft and a connecting rod, better say, a conne crankshaft with 60cm and a connecting rod of about two meters. For the skier, two conne crankshafts and two rods. I obviously could not conceive it (this way). So, I was forced to invent something new.
Here's what I realized: the rod, I replaced them by the two wires that, if made in steel, would not be greater than the thickness of a hair. The conne crankshafts would then be repalced by two smal barrel made of light magnesium, of only 25 grams, which would be like small winches to the threads - and I think that is not much exaggeration to say that the moving parts of this transformer is a hundred times lighter that the rods in the old system. And the low inertia of moving parts is of great interest in a machine which is subject to continuous gear invertions.
The first picture shows my 95 grams transformer designed for an engine of 1 / 10 HP put on the back of a skier. Figure number 2 shows a greater model , of 450 grams, for a 2 HP motor, or even more.
See now how they work.

Take, for example, the large model (Fig.2)
The rotary motion of the motor is received by pinion R and, chained in the tree O, which goes to the bearings P1 and P2. Under this tree are two barrels A and B, on which the wires are wound like it was mentioned before. Finally, among these, a disk D, attached to the shaft by a long key that can slide along it. It is controlled by a system composed of an inner cable T and a lever L, The barrels A, B and disk D that holds the correspondents cavities and saliencies, we see here that we can change using the lever L to one or the other barrel over the axis O.
Lets talk now about the threads F1 and F2 of the drums. In this present case they will bind each at the tip of a ski, through a pulley attached to the heel of your opposite foot, and before that, two small holes L1 and L2, that have two knots a little bit ahead N1 and N2 not exceed two holes of this position, automatically ensures the gear shift, let's see how:
With the engine fired, the belt moves the axis R and the disk D, simple as that.
To start the alternative movement, to gear, lets push, say, by a command, the lever L, it pulls the arm T, which applies the disk D on the barrel B. This comes in line with the tree and turns with it. The wire F2 is coiled then on the barrel-B and the different parts are in the position of Figure 1. This movement should continue until node N2 hit the piece T2 and pull it. But this strike is connected to the lever L, which will be triggered, which will result in moving the disk D to the left, which means disengage the barrel B and engage barrel A. Now it is the time for the wire F, in this second phase, to coil itself, until the arrival of the node N1 on the point of strike; And this again will reverse the gear of the barrels. Notice that during this second time, the wire pulled by ski F2 will uncoil over his barrel, which can rotate freely.
This double movement, in case the skier, should happen about twice per second. But I pray to you my young man or my beautiful girl reader not to worry about it. You not even suspect that the engine valves of your cabriolet open and close more than 60 times per second. It is even said that the atoms inside the molecules, that serve them as prison, are so restless, so excited, going from right to left and left to right, ten million of billion times per second. But I have to admit a limited reliance on the accuracy of these measurements.

On my machine, are strikes that could be accounted, that give the same appearance, which is by the way very entertaining, of a living being.

.. ..

I now present two figures explaining the movement of the skis.
In the first (Fig. ..), the ski is positioned right behind. The wire attached to its tip has just finished his work in bringing the sole of his left foot forward, and its node, arriving at the point of strike, change the gear in the transformer. The wire connected to the tip of the other ski - the left - will then begin to coil up in his little winch. Pushing the right sole to the position of the other figure (Fig. ... ...). Again, the phase of gear will invert, and that about twice per second.

.. ..

For me to be able to convert my invention to the fans, this winter season, and also, show them, in a practical way, the equipment in operation, I’ve manufactured a much larger and more powerful than the other, since its engine has a power of 2, 5 HP and will be placed on two skis, instead of being attached on the back.
Apart from that, if the winter be ready soon, I'll put on wheels initially to test it this summer on the lawns or beaches.
What is curious about this machine is that, like oxen pulling carts, the locomotive that pulls its vagons, the truck pulling trailers and even horse in skijoring, pulling skiers, my machine will push them!

Practice of Skijorking - photo of Santos-Dumont

That's right, you'll see this little machine behind two, three, four man or even more, all in single file, pushed by “cordeletas” (small threads).
Here goes a combination of words as new as my invention.
Do not think, incidentally, I am guided by a fantasy. The system, in all respects, work best from behind. Let us observe that - good change of procedures – would be the machine by itself, driven by last skier. You have to actually consider it as a generator of energy that is transmitted in the form of coming and going of two tiny wires. The respective array of skiers are maintained by a combination of bamboo and light Bowden cables that guide the control leads.

Mme Ponget testing the "Martian"

.. ..

Aeronautics has become the master idea of my life, and still interferes in the smallest concerns of my spirit. This little invention, hardly conceived to help a enjoyable, but very tiring sport, is likely to have considerable importance in my work of predilection.
Time will tell if my imagination did not abuse my expectations.
In this sense, a third machine is under development, with a 30 horsepower engine, weighing 15kg. It is intended for the “flying man” and here's how I envision it operation: on a frame, carrying engine and pilot, two large wings are placed to beat, on the length of the line.

They are formed by a thin mesh, whose bottom face is covered with feathers, each one of these plumes can also rotate around its axis.
When the wing goes up,the feathers goes up and let the air pass by the space formed. When, instead, the wing goes down, all feathers are supported by the screen, forming a counter surface, whose strength is sufficient to lift the machine.
The figure .... clearly shows how the tranformer works on the wings. One of the control cables is directed downward and divides into two branches, each passing over a pulley and coming to connect the wings to download them stops the other wire of the transformer, arranged on top, similarly, serves to raise the sails *.
(* la voilure)

.. ..

These machines, which I have just barely described, are only the first applications of my transformer. I predict many others, even the mechanic pedestrian.
Who knows if we will not see one of these days, like the Martian machines of Wells, cars and trains using mechanical legs? The fantasies of Jules Verne, his submarines, his airships, flying machines, long entertained the audience. But in 1929, are no longer fantasies.
Our sages already foresaw good results from the previously unknown vibratory movements and alternative (apart form those already known), rotating movements. - I envision for Wells, creator of fantasies, the same inventive career that his French counterpart had.

I believe, dear reader, that after this exhibition that tried to do the shortest possible, I was able to describe a curious machine, not only as a novelty, but also for a future use, because of its large number of possible applications.
As with all inventions by me accomplished throughout my life, I did not ask patents. Meeting my highest pleasure and all my reward in the struggle for the solution of the problem, and not on prospective earnings.
So will be it, then, my pleasure, that people may copy my new invention, to the delight of young athletes and to the progress of all mankind.
I only ask one thing: a bit of recognition and forgetting a little slower than that I have experienced in the past.

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It was, in fact - I can it say today - an event a little painful for me to see, after my work with the dirigible and with the heavier than air, the ingratitude of those who covered me with praises not so long ago.
I conducted my experiences in Paris, in front of the people and the press, who witnessed, I received from the Aero Club of France, as a pioneer of aviation, the homage of the monument of Saint-Cloud and the memorial stone of Bagatelle, the government officially consecrated me with honors the French ribbon of the Legion of Honor, and I feel compelled to violate my unwillingness to talk about myself - the self is detestable - to defend these witnesses and this dedication that sometimes recklessly, seem to have been forgotten.
It is more like a proof of my gratitude than a claim, unnecessary by the way, for the history will not by written turning the time, but with facts and documents.
.. ..

From 1901 to 1903, was in everybody’s mouth , all over the world, my successes with dirigibles.
In 1906, my name is praised to the skies again, this time as the first flying man. Here, in support of these sayings, one page of L'Illustration, 18 October 1906. It is impossible here to cite all the newspapers that referred to me in those terms, but what is certain is that everyone, with no exception, was in agreement on this point.
I will not quote here in order not to overload this book.
Soon, however, to meet my young friends demands whom interest the efforts of pioneers, bring all these documents on a second volume that will be completed with the help of evidence, this brief summary.

.. ..
Some years pass, and everything is forgotten. Even if its granted to me, the honor of being the first man to get around the Eiffel Tower in dirigibles, but believed that my balloons were worthless! As if some machine had been born perfect from the first day it was conceived! Observe the boats of some fifty years ago! And the cars of some thirty years ago! (Translator's note – it must be taken into consideration the date of the text - 1929)

For the airplane, the lack of memory is even more complete. According to some, the Wrights were the first to fly. For others it was Ader.

Supporters of the Wrights understand that them flew in North America from 1903 to 1905.
These flights would have occurred near Dayton, in a field whose neighborhood has a Tramway line.
I can not but be deeply surprised by this unexplained fact, unique, unknown: That the Wright brothers did for three and a half years, numerous mechanics flight, without a journalist and as perceptive U.S. press was mobilized to go see them, control them, and take advantage of the most beautiful story of the season!
And what a season!
We were at the height of the career of Gordon Bennett, the typical American journalist, founder of the great stories, which had sent one of his journalists, Livingstone, looking for Stanley in Africa, then unknown and unexplored.
He encouraged everything that was new. Remember the Gordon Bennett Cup for free balloons, and automobiles.
I use to received in my office almost every day and night, one of his reporters. "We", he told me, "we are on a tour to tell the story of the world. Prodigiously We are interested in your work. " And those visits, almost daily, have been reported on his newspaper.
How then imagine that, at the same time, the Wright brothers circled in the air for hours, without anyone been aware of it?
And it is in "1909" that the Wright brothers first came to France, time which they show for the first time their machine. They have kept, they said, as a secret for five years their first flight on December 17, 1903.
However, - I ask you good attention to what I write here - if their machine shown at the end of 1908, first in the United States and later in France, because they would have received an offer of 500,000 francs from a French tycoon. This investor asked them, in exchange, public demonstrations of its apparatus and the assignment of their patents to France.
However, in 1904, time of the Universal Exposition in St. Louis, they say, their machine was already flying for more than one year - and St. Louis is only a few hundred kilometers from the gentlemen’s house - was on the agenda a prize of 500,000 francs, the same as that offered in 1908. And here, no patent had been ceded! But, you see, these 500,000 francs is no longer interesting. They preferred to wait four years and travel 10,000 km to contest on French offer at the moment me myself, the Farman, Blériot and the others already were flying.
Also note that from 1903 to 1908, the Wright brothers had a horror, a terrible dislike for journalists. They will not show anyone their "miracle. " For know the following: In my experience with aircraft in 1903, the engine weighed 10 lbs lighter per horsepower (HP) and in 1908, this proportion had fallen to 3 Kgs per horsepower.
What should be taken into account, in short, is that the Wrights did not fly, or even show their machine, but in 1908.
They had as witness of the flight of 1903 only one sister and two “intimate” friends. Is this proof enough? And this "proof" is not in contradiction with its shortage of 500,000 francs on Saint Louis?
All this is pitifully suspect, further noted that, when they come to Europe, Voisin, framana, Blériot and others had flown after me. Not until two years after those European flights the Wright appear, with a better machine than ours, and would not be, they say, more than a copy of their 1903 airplane.
Soon after Levasseur who came out with his wonderful airplane Antoinette, so superior to anything that existed then! For twenty years he devoted himself to the problem. Could not have said it also was a monoplane that his copy of a model flown several years before? But Levasseur didn’t.
What would say Edison, Graham Bell and Marconi, then if they had made a public presentation of the light bulb, the telephone or the wireless telegraphy, and the comes up a man with a lamp, a telephone or telegraph improved, saying that was built long before and given as a witness ...... his sister! ?
The case Ader, here it goes, no comments:
Commissioned by the War Minister in 1895 to build an aircraft at government expense, Ader, after a two-year work and an expenditure of 700,000 francs, convened the committee to observe his flight.
The committee makes a report that is sent to the Minister of War.
The minister cancels the work and credits of Ader.
By 1906, Ader publishes a book in which he declares that flew in 1897, that the report was favorable, but he would be never able see it. Archdeacon campaigned for knowing the truth.
Senator D'Estournelles Constant even wrote a book that ends with these sentences:
(space of three blank lines)
The report is published by the Journal of Aero, here goes:
(another space of three blank lines)
With over 80 years, the same general has stated that in 1908 Ader flew in the day in question, 300 meters.
None of the other witnesses, that I know, ever came to declare something similar.
.. ..

Who, indeed, humanity owes the credit of air navigation by the heavier than air? To the experiments done in secret (they even claim to have done everything in order no to turn public their work)
[... Ils disent eux-memes, pour avoir tout fait qu'on ne pas suivi leurs travaux] and without any decisive proof? The Ader, that had an overwhelming report against him, done by an elite officer and signed by a young general,and has nothing on his favor but the declaration of this same general, octogenarian now? Or are the pioneers, working in broad daylight, who’s the first step - my flight of 250 meters at Bagatelle - was greeted by all the press as
« minute mémorable dans l’Histoire de l’aviation ». (“memorable minute in the history of Aviation”).