sexta-feira, 4 de novembro de 2016

The balloons ‘Brasil’ and ‘L'Amerique’

First flight of Santos=Dumont with balloon manufacturers Lachambre & Machuron
Soon after his first balloon flight, Santos=Dumont tried to convince the manufacturers of balloon, brothers Machuron and Lachambre, to construct a small individual balloon. It was indeed the first steps to realize his dream of performing individual flight, like the mythological Icarus.

leia este artigo em Português 

"... They’ve tried to prove me that in order to be stable a balloon, needs weight. A 100 cubic meters balloon should be more responsive to movements of an aeronaut inside of the nacelle than a large balloon of currents dimensions.

In order to prevent that my movements inside the nacelle may alter the center of balance of the balloon, I’ve ordered longer strings; the result was a huge success regarding to the balance and weight distribution.

When I took Mr. Lachambre my light Japanese silk, he looked at me and said, "It will be very weak." We tested it in dynamometer and the result was surprising. While China silk supports a 700 kilograms per linear meter tension, thin Japanese silk endured tension of 1,000 kg; I mean that proved to be 30 times more resistant than necessary because of the theory of tensions. The result is extraordinary considering that it weighs only 30 grams per square meter!

A fact that shows how competent people can be deceived when attached to summary judgments is to say that all the balloons of my aircraft are manufactured with the same silk.

In the meantime, the internal pressure that it must withstand is large, whereas all the spherical balloons are fitted at the bottom of a hole permitting it relief.

Santos=Dumont 1st Balloon - 'Brasil' 

Once ready, the "Brazil" showed 113 cubic meters of capacity, which is approximately 113 square meters of silk surface. The entire involucre weighed only 3 and half kilos. Varnish layers made up that weight 14 kg.

The net (filet du ballon), which often weighs 50 kilos, was not going to only 1,800 grams. The nacelle, which ordinary minimum is 30 kilos, is now just 6kg.  My No. 9 had a nacelle that did not reach the 5 kilos. My "guide-rope", thin but very long because average 100 meters, weighed 8 kilos, if at all; its length gave the "Brazil" a good elasticity. I’ve replaced the anchor by a 3 kilos iron harpoon.

Still, with reference to lightness in every detail, I thought the balloon, despite its small dimensions, would have enough strength to get up with my 50 kilos of weight and 30 more ballast, I got to test a tied bike to the ropes with the intention of returning to distant places to the comforts of home, but unfortunately came very close to the total balloon tare and became infeasible, only returned to do it in my second balloon the L’Amerique. And these weight conditions that made my first air travel.

Balloon Brazil with filet du ballon (net used around the enclosure) inside - extremely light

On another occasion, in the presence of a curious French minister to see the smallest of spherical balloons, I almost never took ballast, 4 or 5 kilos only, and nevertheless I had a good rise.

The "Brazil" was very manageable in the air and very docile. It was, moreover, easy to pack after the descent: It wasn't a rumor spreaded that I even carried it inside a briefcase.

Before my first ascent in little "Brazil" I performed twenty-five or thirty other rises in standard spherical balloons, all alone, simultaneously captain and passenger in one person. Mr. Lachambre, who commissioned several public ascents, allowed me to do some instead. That's how I came up in several cities of France and Belgium. This attitude avoided work and uncomfortable to Mr. Lachambre, whom I reimbursed for all expenses, gave me pleasure and allowed me to practice this so-called "sport". This gentlemen's agreement pleased both of us.

I doubt that without a series of studies and preliminary experiments on spherical balloon, a man get any chance of being successful with an elongated dirigible, whose management is much more delicate. Before attempting to drive an aircraft is essential to be on board of an ordinary balloon, learned the conditions of atmospheric environment, made knowledge with the wind whims, penetrated in depth the difficulties that presents the ballast problem under the triple aspect of departure air balance and landing.

original balloon 'Brasil'

Having maneuvered personally a spherical balloon is, in my opinion, indispensable preliminary to acquire exact notion of what entails the construction and direction of an elongated balloon, equipped with engine and propeller.
One of the balloon Brazil ascents - great friend of Dumont's  the mathematician Emmanuel Aimé took his daughter to the event

Notice that I manifest great surprise when I see inventors who never set foot in a nacelle, draw on paper and to execute, in whole or in part, those fantastic aircrafts with balloons cubing thousands of meters, laden with huge engines, completely unable to rise from the ground and provided with such complicated machines that will never work. The inventors of this class never expressed fear because they have absolutely no idea of the difficulties involving of this particular problem.

If they had started to travel in the air blowing in the wind, facing hostile influences of atmospheric phenomena, they would understand that a dirigible balloon, to be practical, requires first of all an extremely simple mechanism. Some unfortunate builders, who paid with their lives their sad recklessness, had never made an increase in spherical balloon as captain and under his own responsibility. Most of the emulators today, so devoted to their tasks, is still under the same conditions of inexperience. This explains to me their failures. They are in the same situation that, without having ever left the land or set foot in a boat, intended to build and operate a transatlantic ship."

And then, Santos=Dumont reports the first flight of the small Balloon Brazil

People present at the inaugural flight of the balloon Brazil on July 4 1898 - Marcelle Grandcey French socialite, the painter Leopold Flammeng, Louis Krieger engineer, responsible for introducing the electric motor drive to Santos=Dumont, Emmanuel aimé among other friends
"... I did not have to wait long to have a beautiful day with gentle winds, it was a Saturday morning of July 4th , 1898, my sister Virginia had come all the way from Porto city in Portugal only to witness my achievement, the balloon was already connected to the nacelle, the audience was waiting with anxiety and everything was ready, but I could not leave. I had invited Hélène de Raoul to be the maid of honor of this first flight and she was extremely late. When my impatience seemed already evident from my nervousness I see at the distance the beautiful lady accompanied by her chauffeur.
Hélène de Raoul maid of honor of the inaugural flight of the balloon Brazil

At that moment my grief had turned immediately in great joy. Hélène justified her delay to the fact that her husband, an officer in the French army, be at the front that morning. The christening ceremony took place as planned; Hélène insisted that the balloon was baptized with her favorite champagne, Dom Perrignon. Then without further ado I took a cup and then went up into the air".

Helene was indeed very important to Dumont, and apparently, she also had great affection for him, because she ignored the jealous husband's concerns to the aviator, went to the jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris, only to take with S=D a glass of Champagne under the maiden voyage of the balloon Brazil.


Dumont got tired to fly alone, and decides to make a slightly larger balloon with 9.8 meters of diameters and cubing 500 m3. He had two basic purposes with that, take passengers on board, and most importantly, thought to increase the strength ascensoral to the point of bringing a light engine and propellers, to make the first experiences with maneuverability.

Balão Esférico L'Ameirque

L'Amerique made several ascents, on June 12, 1898 was in 4th place in a test drive of 325km and the first in another proof of staying longer in the air, doing extensive 22-hour flight.

sexta-feira, 4 de março de 2016

Japanese community is conclusive in favor of Santos Dumont vs Wright brothers, on dispute 'who gave wings to mankind'

Japanese community is conclusive in favor of Santos Dumont vs Wright brothers, on dispute 'who gave wings to mankind'
Last February 11, LIGO experiment has proved that gravitational waves exists and opened a new era of astrophysics, right?

- Wrong, two brothers from Dayton, OH, became the first people to prove the existence of such waves, three years ago.

- But they have witnesses?

- Yes, some people who were near saw it.

Today an affirmation as these would be considered ridiculous, misplaced and with total lack of criteria - an absurd, but it was exactly what happened to Santos-Dumont.

The morning of November 12th 1906 the world was in ecstasy, for the first time the man was able to achieve the maximum dream, flying with a self-powered machine heavier-than-air in the presence of the scientific community, reporters from various countries of the world and many more hundreds of people.

Some days later, American media frivolously discredited him by saying that brothers from Dayton, OH had already flown three years before Mr. Dumont, in the presence of 4 or 5 passers-by.

Santos-Dumont has devoted much of his life to the flight, thoroughly studied the birds and the dynamics of flight, flew in several balloons baskets, airships designed by him in 15 years of research, created 14 previous inventions until he could effectively fly that day.

But for the sake of history, Japanese community is very careful and devoted to judicious affirmations and is from Japan that comes the rescue of truth.

The last edition of AGORA, a magazine for top executives distributed to passengers with a particularly high usage rate from among JAL passengers annually, brings an extensive article that describes the amazing truth about Santos=Dumont’s life, and about the historical distortions that led the Wright Brothers to the improper glory, and thrown Santos-Dumont to oblivion.

But now, things start to change, the article leaves no doubt:

“...What really made Santos-Dumont best known all over the world, was his performances in 1906 in the Bois de Boulogne with a funny powered kite-shaped airplane, named (Bis). He flew 60 meters. (The flight of Santos-Dumont was done in front of thousands of witnesses, including scientists and newspaper reporters, whereas the flight 1903 of Wright brothers was attended by only five common people).
Santos=Dumont Club - history of the the man who gave wings to mankind - Santos=Dumont

Thus, Santos-Dumont becomes adored as the first man to achieve the biggest dream of humanity,

'No, the first fly the skies with a precarious flying machine were the Wright brothers, for that no one would have the good sense to question about'

This hypothetical "historical fact" is what erroneously remains in people's minds of the XXI century around the world. But "good sense" confirms that the first to have won the heavens was the Brazilian citizen living in Paris, Alberto Santos-Dumont.

If 100 years ago, or more, you asked someone anywhere in the world, even in crowded streets of Ginza, "Do you know who Santos-Dumont is?", People probably would say yes. Today perhaps some people might remember him, just because the famous series 'Cartier Santos watches' (in fact, the watch was originally conceived to allow Santos-Dumont to monitor time while maneuvering his dirigible, it was presented by his dear friend, Louis Cartier).

What remains is that bad feeling that Santos-Dumont is another orphan child left in the immense darkness of history.”
Some other Japanese Magazines about Santos=Dumont

Original article, written in Japanese

彼の名をさらに世界に知ら しめたのは〇六年一〇月二二日、 ブーローニュの森で箱型凧のよう な奇妙な形の動力付飛行機『 bis』でやってのけた約六〇メ ートルの飛行だった。

この時、世界はまだライト兄弟のライト・フライヤー号による〇三年の飛行成 功を知らない(サントス デュモ ンの飛行が科学者や新聞記者を含 む何千人という証人の前で成され た一方、ライト兄弟のそれを見た のはわずか五人の一般人だった)。

 為に、サントス デュモンは人類 の夢を叶えた男として大いにもて はやされ、時代の寵児となる。

行機で空を飛んだのはア メリカのライト兄弟である──こ れは誰も異論を差し挟むことのな い常識だろう。けれども、二〇世 紀初頭のある時期、世界の大方の 人々が信じていたのは別の「歴史 的事実」だった。当時の「常識」に よれば、最初に空を制したのはパ リに住むブラジル人、アルベルト・ サントス デュモンである。

  その頃から一〇〇余年を経た今 日、例えば東京・銀座の街角で一 〇〇〇人に「サントス デュモン を知っていますか?」と訊いて、 いったい何人がイエスと答えるだ ろう? もしかしたら、数人の時 計好きがカルティエのサントス・ ウォッチのことを思い出すかもし れない(その腕時計は、元々ルイ・ カルティエが畏友サントス デュ モンのために、飛行船操縦の時に 便利なようにと考案したものだっ た)。
こと ほ ど さ よ う に サ ン ト スデュモンの名は歴史の暗がりの 中に置き去りにされてしまった感 がある。

The Japanese have always given due weight to history and the achievements of Santos-Dumont. In 1976 there was a club exclusively dedicated to the aviation pioneer his noble memory.
Santos=Dumont Club - Japan 1976

Led by Master Morita, the club was known for foster interchange of information between the Foundation Santos-Dumont, administrated at that time by deputy president, Fernando E. Lee.

In 2004, while researching the real history of human flight discovery, two magazines published articles about the life of Santos=Dumont, the Seven Seas magazine dedicated to luxury consumers and members of the Seven Seas Club, which features 45 pages with wonderful photos showing places frequented by Santos=Dumont in Brazil and in the world and a special edition of 世界の腕時計. (The World of watches), both deal with how Santos-Dumont, a creative genius, elegant man who makes insightful research comes inventing the heavier-than-air in a thorough inventive process, but falling in the days public oblivion today, then I transcribe the text of The World of watches.

“...At October 22, 1906, a bizarre shaped flight machine, such as a box kite took off in the gardens of the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, and flew 60m.

It was a huge success in Europe's when the first powered flight took place. Designed and maneuvered by Santos-Dumont, the bamboo flying machine had a wingspan of 12m, total length 10m, all covered with Japanese-made silk, the canard style airship called 14-bis (bis means "again”, because it was the 14th attempt to construct a flying machine, completely designed and tested by him).

Three weeks later he flew 100m with the same airship, and was awarded with the Archdeacon prize, to be given for "the one who first fly an aircraft heavier than air, for more than 100m”.

But then, the Wright Brothers arrived announcing that they had already flown, on December 17, 1903 in the United States, a successful flight of 12 seconds in the light ‘Flyer1’, at the presence of observers. And thus, Santos-Dumont lost the honor to be the world's first to fly).
Team of Masako Mori and Professor Ricardo Magalhaes, doing their research at S=D museum in Petrópolis
Santos-Dumont has emigrated to Paris in 1891, he was a stylished dressed, small statured man who divided his time in car races and dinners in first-class restaurants, and he had always shown great interest in flying through the skies. In 1898 he drifted in empty space, with his first, small balloon, designed by him. After this first invention, he has conceived 14 more flying machines, 10 of them were dirigibles, with the dirigible No 6, and he was the first man to maneuver a dirigible, in a pre-determined route around the Eiffel Tower, in limited time and by this, won the Deutsch Prize. After that he has designed 4 more airplanes, until reach the success in flying with his14-Bis. In 1907 he hits his peak with the invention of his last airplane, with a full-length of 8m, the “Demoiselle”, was both elegant and delicate.”
世界 の 腕時計. (World of Watches) on Cartier Santos Watches 

1906 10 月 22 日、 パリ · ブローニュ の 森で箱凧のような 奇怪 な 形の飛行機械が飛び立ち 、 60mを飛行した 。

ヨーロッパ 初の動力飛行の成功だった。 操縦するの は設計者でもあるサ・ントス - デュモン 、 飛行機械は竹と日本製 シルクで作られた 翼幅 12m 、 全長 10 m 、 先尾翼機14- ビス ( ビスとは "再び の 意で, 彼 は テスト機 14号篠を設計 し ていた)。 それから 3 週間後 、 彼 は 同じ機体で100 m を飛行 し 、「初めて重航空機で100m を飛行した者」 に与え られた アルクデアコン賞 を受賞した。 しかし 1903 年12月17日に アメ リカで ライト兄弟が ライトフライヤ 1で12秒の 飛行に成功したことが後 に認められ 、 世界初の栄誉 は 逃してしまう。

1891年、パリに移住したサントス-デュモンは 小粋な身なりをした社交界の新参者であった。 自動車 レースに出たり 、 一流レストランで食事を したりと遊んではいたが 、 彼 のいちばんの興味は空を飛ぶこと。 1898 年には自ら設計した 小型気球 「 ブラジル号 」 でパリの 空を漂った。その後、 14- ビスまでに 10機の飛行船を設計したが 、 なかでも6号機は制限時間内にエッフェル 塔を周回し 、 ドゥーチ 賞を 獲得した 。 14-ビス後、 4機の飛行機を設計した、 いずれも失敗に終わってしまう。 そして 1907年 、最後に設計した全長 8m の華奢で優美な姿の 「 ドゥモアゼル 」 が 飛び上がった。

'Unsolved mysteries' and 'rewriting the history of aviation'

Japanese community has always had great expressiveness in the Brazilian Aviation, Brazil has the largest Japanese community outside Japan - Ricardo Magalhaes - vice president of the Institute A. Santos Dumont, Luiz Pagano - blogger of Santos-Dumont and the first Japanese descent who reached the highest rank of the institution, Lieutenant-Brigadier of the Air Masao Kawanami - at back, Japanese garden and plaque honoring Japanese-Brazilian community at Medical Center/Hospital Sao Paulo Air Force Base
Why public opinion worldwide has decided to adopt the brothers’ and to abandon Santos-Dumont?

To answer this question, I invite the reader to make a more thorough investigation. Nonetheless, I venture to say that the beginning of the century was a time of great discoveries, the supremacy of the countries was evaluated by the way they presented their inventions in world fairs. The United States of America were the inventors of marketing and have always dominated the state propaganda - Why then a man belonging to an unexpressive country, of a newly liberated colony of Portugal, would be entitled to primacy of the flight?

Publications mentioned in this article

Agora Magazine – february 27th, 2016 (March issue/16)
Publishing House - JAPAN AIRLINES CO. LTD
40-8637 Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo Higashi 2-4-11
Report 堀 雅子 (Masako Hori)
Jornalist Yasuyuki Ukieta, 
Photographer Taisuke Yoshida

日本 サントス · ドゥモン クラブ -1976
Santos=Dumont Club Japan
Directed by Master Morita, in Japan 
Technical partner in Brazil Fernando E. Lee - VP in exercise of the Santos=Dumont Foundation

Magazine 世界の腕時計 (The World of Watches) – august 20th 2004 
# 70
Editorial & Corporate Headquarter 3-39-2 Nakano, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8551 Japan 
Editor in Chief TOMOKO KAYAMA

Seven Seas Magazine (セブン シーズ) – July 7th,  2004 
# 191
International Luxury Media and Club Seven Seas
Publisher: International Luxury Media
Copyright(c) 2002-2016 Fujisan Magazine Service Co., Ltd.